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Royal Rainmaking Technology


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      In that to The Royal Rainmaking operations to moderate drought in 1999 were very successful, His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej not only encouraged the officers to review the earlier Royal Rainmaking techniques, but also suggested that the officers continue to develop the Royal Rainmaking technology and techniques. With his intelligence and vision, he developed techniques to a higher level by a weather modification process called the “Super Sandwich Technique” to attack both warm clouds and cold clouds simultaneously.  (The earlier Royal Rainmaking operation was used only for warm clouds.)  Then he gave his own computer drawing as a guideline for Royal Rainmaking operations in order to combine technical knowledge and procedures for practice and understanding.  For ease of understanding and operations, he summarized techniques and processes as drawings on one page of paper.
 
    Weather modification by Royal Rainmaking technology was the latest innovation invented by His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej and was originally used in Thailand.
 
     A computer drawing by His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej titled “Royal Rainmaking Technology” shows the process and weather modification methods to make rain from warm clouds and cold clouds.  It was given to the rainmakers on March 21, 199 as guidelines in the operations.
 

 pictorial book of Royal Rainmaking Royal Rainmaking Technology

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The meaning of each picture of the royal rainmaking technology

The uppermost row of the Royal Rainmaking Technology

       Frame 1:  A goddess called “Manimekhala, a computer drawing by His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej, is the chief of meteorological Service at Mount Sumeru Vedecha in Thai belief. 

       Frame 2. In Thai legend, Phra Indra is a supreme God who has an important role in providing rainfall for humans.

       Frame 3. “March 21, 1999”: His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej went to Chaing Mai Province for royal duties on a plane on March 21, 1999.  During his return to Bangkok, His Majesty noticed that it was possible to make rain from the clouds covering the lower northern part of Thailand. He took a picture of the clouds and gave it to the Special Royal Rainmaking Operations Team. In accordance with a royal command, the team launched a Royal Rainmaking operation to moderate the drought in the lower northern part and the Chao Phraya River basin.

       Frame4. Three Aircraft: The following aircraft are appropriate (and available) for Royal Rainmaking operations in accordance to the 1through six processes of Royal Rainmaking Technology.       

             Type Aircraft                          Number Available            Type Operation

             SUPER KING AIR                            3                           Cold cloud seeding

             CASA                                            14                           Warm cloud seeding

             CARAVAN                                      13                           Warm cloud seeding


Row 1, Frames 1-3 (Step I. Triggering)

        This step begins when the sky in the target area is clear or only a few cumulus clouds have formed in the morning and the average relative humidity is at least 60 percent. Powder of sodium chloride, hereafter NaCl,  is dispersed from aircraft in the upwind side of the target area at the altitude of 7,000-8,000 ft. In order to activate cloud formation, each particle of Sodium Chloride acts as cloud condensation nuclei to absorb moisture and then change the status from vapour to liquid or cloud droplets. The clouds can be formed to be bigger clouds and the cloud top can reach the altitude of 10,000 ft.

Row 2 Frames 1-4 (Step II. Fattening)

        This step is to make clouds in the previous step as well as the natural clouds grow bigger. It begins when the cloud tops of the cumulus clouds formed from Step I reach the heights of 10,000 ft.  This step is done by an aircraft which disperses powder of calcium chloride hereafter CaCl2 into clouds at the level of 8,000 ft. The heat from the chemical reaction of CaCl2 and moisture will expedite or enhance the updraft of air mass in the cloud. Therefore, the cloud growth increases continuously and the cloud top is higher than the previous step. The cloud top can reach the heights of 15,000 ft where it is ‘warm cloud’ (the temperature in the cloud top is higher than 00c). If the updraft is enough, then the cloud top can develop until it reaches the heights of 20,000 ft where it becomes cold cloud (the temperature in the cloud top is below 0c).

Row 3, Frames 1-4 (Step III. Attacking : Sandwich Technique)

        This is the case for warm cloud seeding which begins when the cumulus clouds formed from Step II move along the wind approaching the target area and the cloud tops reach the heights of 10,000 feet or higher. One aircraft disperses NaCl at the top or the shoulder of the clouds (an attitude of 9,000 ft) on the upwind side. At the same time, another aircraft applies urea at the height of 1,000 ft. above the base clouds. This results in two aircrafts flying simultaneously in parallel, making an angle of 45 degree to the horizontal line. This flying technique is called ‘sandwich’ flying. After seeding, raindrops in cloud become densely bigger and level down to cloud base. The cloud becomes mature and starts to fall as rain but not too much.

Row 4, Frames 1-4 (Step IV. Enhancing)

        This step is to maintain Step III and enhance rainfall onto the ground. After operating step III, the rain may not fall too much because the atmosphere below the cloud base is drier and the temperature is higher than that in the cloud. Thus, the raindrops that fall through the cloud base rapidly evaporate into vapour. This step is done by dispersing dry ice flakes (-78c) at the heights of 1,000 ft. below the cloud base to lower air mass’s temperature and increase relative humidity. This action will help reducing evaporation of raindrops. The rainfall rate increases gradually and a greater number of giant raindrops reach the ground. This causes heavy rain which provides more amount of rainfall than that of natural rain.

Row 5, Frames 1-4 (Step V. Attacking by cold cloud seeding or Silver Iodide (AgI ) Seeding)

           This step is operated when the cloud top formed from Step II reach the heights of 20,000 ft. This process is done by ejecting flares of AgI into the cloud top at the heights of 21,500 ft. After operation, the amount of ice will be formed especially in the cloud top. Freezing of droplets enhances the release of latent heat, increases cloud buoyancy and updraft, and induces moister air into the cloud base. The ice will grow much better before melting to be raindrops.

Row 6, Frames 1-3 (Step VI. Attacking Technique : Super Sandwich)

           This step is used when the cloud top from Step II reach over the heights of 20,000 ft. and the cloud condition is the same as that in step V. This step involves warm and cold cloud attacking techniques at the same time with at least 3 aircrafts. The cold cloud seeding aircraft ejects flares of AgI into the cloud top (at the heights of 21,500 ft.) and the two warm cloud seeding aircrafts fly by using sandwich technique. The first one disperses NaCl at the mid-cloud level (about 10,000 ft), the another one disperses urea at the cloud base level. However, the warm cloud seeding aircraft may disperse dry ice in step IV in order to enhance rainfall. After seeding by the Super Sandwich Attacking Technique, the treated clouds start to rain heavily and continuously for a long time resulting in large amount.


The last row of the Royal Rainmaking Technology drawing

 Frame 1: Cat Procession

           - Cat Procession to beg for rain has been carried on in Thailand since the ancient times. It is a local public relation, a psychological ritual for consoling and giving hope to people in severe drought areas that rain will come. 

Frame 2: Rainmaking aircraft

        - Rainmaking aircraft are vehicles used in applying Royal Rainmaking technology. The aircraft must fly through rain clouds to explore and follow-up on results. For successful rainmaking operations, the rainmaking making official and pilot must cooperate.

Frame 3: Frog

          “The frogs who desire a ruler” is a Thai fable.  A group of frogs in the story chose their ruler themselves in a stupid way.  The author compares the frogs’ sounds when they call to choose their ruler that they are calling for rain in reality.  However, the frog sound is a prediction that rain will come.

          If nothing happens frogs will be anxious and warn for attempts.  If nothing happens, frogs die.  If there is no rain, agriculture dies.

          One of important quotes for rainmakers is you have to kiss a lot of frogs before you meet the prince.

Frame 4: “Sky Rocket

          Instead of aircraft (Perform the same mission as aircraft being technological vehicles to work in the sky.

        Making rain by shooting skyrockets is a tradition, not a toy. Skyrockets go high, releasing smoke as an axle for humidity surrounding the axle, bringing rain clouds.  The use of skyrockets is a scientific procedure.

 

 

 

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